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Posts Tagged ‘ADD’

According to a study published November 22nd in the New England Journal of Medicine by Paul Lichtenstein, Ph.D et al, “The use of medication to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [AD/HD] is linked to a lower likelihood of crime,” “Using Swedish national registers, researchers studied about 16,000 men and 10,000 women ages 15 and older who had been diagnosed with AD/HD.” Next, “court and prison records were used to track convictions from 2006 through 2009 and see whether patients were taking AD/HD drugs when their crimes were committed.”  The results showed that as compared with nonmedication periods, among patients receiving ADHD medication, there was a significant reduction of 32% in the criminality rate for men ) and 41% for women.

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HealthDay (http://tinyurl.com/ADHD-and-Smoking 11/23, Thomas) reported, “Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy or who were exposed to lead have more than double the risk of having” AD/HD “as other children.” Based on their study of “2,588 children aged eight to 15 from around the” US, scientists from Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center “concluded that about 38 percent of AD/HD cases among children” in that age group “may be caused by prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, while 25 percent of AD/HD cases are due to lead exposure.”

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vitaminsMedscape (11/3, Cassels) reported that, according to research, “overall nutritional status in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) shows that this patient population is at risk for low trace mineral status, including deficiencies in zinc and copper.” Canadian found that, “among 44 children aged six to 12 years with AD/HD, rates of zinc and copper deficiency were 45% and 35%, respectively.” In addition, “40% of the children consumed less than the recommended levels of meat and meat alternatives and had low levels of related micronutrients that are essential cofactors for the body’s manufacture of dopamine, norepinephrine, and melatonin.”  Researchers associate low folate levels in pregnancy with increased odds for AD/HD in offspring.  Healthday(11/3, Preidt http://tinyurl.com/low-folate-ADD) reported that, according to a study published online Oct. 28 in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, “low folate levels during pregnancy are associated with higher odds for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in offspring aged seven to nine.” Investigators also discovered that “children of mothers with low folate levels had notably smaller head circumference at birth, which may indicate a slower rate of prenatal brain growth.”

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The Washington Post (9/22, Ellison) reports that, according to a study published Sept. 9 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, there may be “a striking difference in the brain’s motivational machinery in people with” attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) symptoms. The study included “a group of healthy subjects” and “53 adults with AD/HD.” Researchers compared “detailed images of participants’ brains with positron emission tomography, or PET, scans after injecting them with a radioactive chemical that binds to dopamine receptors and transporters.” They found that “in people with AD/HD, the receptors and transporters aradhde significantly less abundant in mid-brain structures composing the so-called reward pathway, which is involved in associating stimuli with pleasurable expectations.” Researchers “speculated that people with AD/HD may even have a net deficit of dopamine.”

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Dopamine HealthDay (9/8, Dotinga) reported that, according to a study published Sept. 9 in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the “the trouble concentrating that affects people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) might be related to motivation.” Specifically, “the motivational problems seen with” AD/HD “appear to stem from a reduction in” the neurotransmitter dopamine. For the study, researchers from the US National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Brookhaven National Laboratory recruited “53 adults with AD/HD” who “underwent positron emission tomography (PET) scans for dopamine markers.” Next, the team “compared the results with PET scans of 44 adults without the condition.” In participants with AD/HD, the investigators found “disruptions in the two dopamine pathways associated with reward and motivation.”   WebMD (9/8, Warner) pointed out that “the results offer new insight into AD/HD, as well as help explain why people with AD/HD may be more likely to abuse drugs or become obese.” Lead study author Nora D. Volkow, MD, stated, “Our results also support the continued use of stimulant medications — the most common pharmacological treatment for AD/HD — which have been shown to increase attention to cognitive tasks by elevating brain dopamine.”   CBC News (9/9), BBC News (9/8), the UK’s Daily Mail (9/9, Hope), and the UK’s Telegraph (9/8, Smith) also covered the story.

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intunivThe Philadelphia Business Journal (9/3, George) reported, “The Food and Drug Administration granted marketing approval Thursday to Shire for Intuniv [guanfacine], a nonstimulant treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents aged six to 17.” Shire “already has three other AD/HD treatments in the United States and two AD/HD medicines outside the United States.”  HealthDay (9/3, Roberts) reported that Shire said its “once-daily” medication, “to be available in one-to-four mg strengths, is expected on pharmacy shelves in November.” Reuters (9/4) also covers the story.

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dnaHealthDay (6/25, Preidt) reported that, according to a study published online June 23 in Molecular Psychiatry, researchers from the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, have identified “hundreds of gene variations that may be associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD).” For the study, the team “analyzed genomes from 335 AD/HD patients and their families, and compared them to more than 2,000 children without AD/HD. The hundreds of gene variations were found to occur more often in children with AD/HD than in normal children.” In a news release, psychiatrist and AD/HD expert Josephine Elia, MD, stated, “Because the gene alterations we found are involved in the development of the nervous system, they may eventually guide researchers to better targets in designing early intervention for children with AD/HD.” HealthDay noted, “The cause of AD/HD isn’t known, but studies have shown that it’s strongly influenced by genetics.”

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